Fundamental Principles Of Juvenile and Protection of Children


Fundamental principles to be followed in administration of these rules.―

(1) The State Government, the Juvenile Justice Board, the Child Welfare Committee or other competent authorities or agencies, as the case may be, while implementing the provisions of these rules shall abide and be guided by the principles, specified in sub-rule (2).


(2) The following principles shall, interalia, be fundamental to the application, interpretation and implementation of the Act and the rules made hereunder:


I. Principle of presumption of innocence:

  1. A juvenile or child or juvenile in conflict with law is presumed to be innocent of any malafide or criminal intent up to the age of eighteen years.
  2. The juvenile’s or juvenile’s in conflict with law or child's right to presumption of innocence shall be respected throughout the process of justice and protection, from the initial contact to alternative care, including aftercare.
  3. Any unlawful conduct of a juvenile or a child or a juvenile in conflict with law which is done for survival, or is due to environmental or situational factors or is done under control of adults, or peer groups, is ought to be covered by the principles of innocence.
  4. The basic components of presumption of innocence are:


(i) Age of innocence


Age of innocence is the age below which a juvenile or child or a juvenile in conflict with law cannot be subjected to the criminal justice system. The Beijing Rule 4(1) clearly lays down that “the beginning of the age of criminal responsibility shall not be fixed at too low an age level bearing in mind the facts of mental and intellectual maturity”. In consonance with this principle, the mental and intellectual maturity of juvenile or child or a juvenile in conflict with law below eighteen years is considered insufficient throughout the world.


(ii) Procedural protection of innocence


All procedural safeguards that are guaranteed by the Constitution and other statutes to the adults and that go in to strengthen the juvenile’s or child’s right to presumption of innocence shall be guaranteed to juveniles or the children or juveniles in conflict with law.


(iii) Provisions of Legal aid and Guardian Ad Litem


Juveniles in conflict with law have a right to be informed about the accusations against them and a right to be legally represented. Provisions must be made for guardian ad litem, legal aid and other such assistance through legal services at State expense. This shall also include such juveniles right to present his case before the competent authority on his own.

II. Principle of dignity and worth:

(a) Treatment that is consistent with the child’s sense of dignity and worth is a fundamental principle of juvenile justice. This principle reflects the fundamental human right enshrined in Article 1 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights that all human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. Respect of dignity includes not being humiliated, personal identity, boundaries and space being respected, not being labeled and stigmatized, being offered information and choices and not being blamed for their acts.


(b) The juvenile’s or child’s right to dignity and worth has to be respected and protected throughout the entire process of dealing with the child from the first contact with law enforcement agencies to the implementation of all measures for dealing with the child.

III. Principle of Right to be heard:

Every child’s right to express his views freely in all matters affecting his interest shall be fully respected through every stage in the process of juvenile justice. Children’s right to be heard shall include creation of developmentally appropriate tools and processes of interacting with the child, promoting children’s active involvement in decisions regarding their own lives and providing opportunities for discussion and debate.

IV. Principle of Best Interest:

  1. In all decisions taken within the context of administration of juvenile justice, the principle

    of best interest of the juvenile or the juvenile in conflict with law or child shall be the primary consideration.

  2. The principle of best interest of the juvenile or juvenile in conflict with law or child shall mean for instance that the traditional objectives of criminal justice, retribution and repression, must give way to rehabilitative and restorative objectives of juvenile justice.

  3. This principle seeks to ensure physical, emotional, intellectual, social and moral development of a juvenile in conflict with law or child so as to ensure the safety, well being and permanence for each child and thus enable each child to survive and reach his or her full potential.

V. Principle of family responsibility:

  1. The primary responsibility of bringing up children, providing care, support and protection shall be with the biological parents. However, in exceptional situations, this responsibility may be bestowed on willing adoptive or foster parents.

  2. All decision making for the child should involve the family of origin unless it is not in the best interest of the child to do so.

  3. The family - biological, adoptive or foster (in that order), must be held responsible and provide necessary care, support and protection to the juvenile or child under their care and custody under the Act, unless the best interest measures or mandates dictate otherwise.

VI. Principle of Safety (no harm, no abuse, no neglect, no exploitation and no maltreatment):

(a) At all stages, from the initial contact till such time he remains in contact with the care and protection system, and thereafter, the juvenile or child or juvenile in conflict with law shall not be subjected to any harm, abuse, neglect, maltreatment, corporal punishment or solitary or otherwise any confinement in jails and extreme care shall be taken to avoid any harm to the sensitivity of the juvenile or the child.

(b) The state has a greater responsibility for ensuring safety of every child in its care and protection, without resorting to restrictive measures and processes in the name of care and protection.

VII. Positive measures:

(a) Provisions must be made to enable positive measures that involve the full mobilization of all possible resources, including the family, volunteers and other community groups, as well as schools and other mainstream community institutions or processes, for the purpose of promoting the well-being of the juvenile or child through individual care plans carefully worked out.

(b) The positive measures shall aim at reducing vulnerabilities and reducing the need for intervention under the law, as well as effective, fair and humane dealing of the juvenile or child.

(c) The positive measures shall include avenues for health, education, relationships, livelihoods, leisure, creativity and play.

(d) Such positive measures must facilitate the development of identity for the child and provide them with an inclusive and enabling environment.

VIII. Principle of non-stigmatizing semantics, decisions and actions:

The non-stigmatizing semantics of the Act must be strictly adhered to, and the use of adversarial or accusatory words, such as, arrest, remand, accused, charge sheet, trial, prosecution, warrant, summons, conviction, inmate, delinquent, neglected, custody or jail is prohibited in the processes pertaining to the child or juvenile in conflict with law under the Act.

IX. Principle of non-waiver of rights:

(a) No waiver of rights of the child or juvenile in conflict with law, whether by himself or the competent authority or anyone acting or claiming to act on behalf of the juvenile or child, is either permissible or valid.

(b) Non-exercise of a fundamental right does not amount to waiver.

X. Principle of equality and non-discrimination:

(a) There shall be no discrimination against a child or juvenile in conflict with law on the basis of age, sex, place of birth, disability, health, status, race, ethnicity, religion, caste, cultural practices, work, activity or behaviour of the juvenile or child or that of his parents or guardians, or the civil and political status of the juvenile or child.

(b) Equality of access, equality of opportunity, equality in treatment under the Act shall be guaranteed to every child or juvenile in conflict with law.

XI. Principle of right to privacy and confidentiality:

The juvenile's or child's right to privacy and confidentiality shall be protected by all means and through all the stages of the proceedings and care and protection processes.

XII. Principle of last resort:

Institutionalization of a child or juvenile in conflict with law shall be a step of the last resort after reasonable inquiry and that too for the minimum possible duration.

XIII. Principle of repatriation and restoration:

(a) Every juvenile or child or juvenile in conflict with law has the right to be re-united with his family and restored back to the same socio-economic and cultural status that such juvenile or child enjoyed before coming within the purview of the Act or becoming vulnerable to any form of neglect, abuse or exploitation.

(b) Any juvenile or child, who has lost contact with his family, shall be eligible for protection under the Act and shall be repatriated and restored, at the earliest, to his family, unless such repatriation and restoration is likely to be against the best interest of the juvenile or the child.

XIV. Principle of Fresh Start:

(a) The principle of fresh start promotes new beginning for the child or juvenile in conflict with law by ensuring erasure of his past records.

(b) The State shall seek to promote measures for dealing with children alleged or recognized as having impinged the penal law, without resorting to judicial proceedings.